2 edition of Intertrial interval effects upon avoidance behavior in titration schedules found in the catalog.
Intertrial interval effects upon avoidance behavior in titration schedules
Lanny H. Fields
1968 in [New York?] .
Written in English
|Statement||[by] Lanny H. Fields.|
|LC Classifications||BF319.5.A9 F5|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||86|
|LC Control Number||70268403|
A reinforcement schedule in which a response is reinforced depending on how soon that response is made after the previous occurrence of the behavior. Schedule of Reinforcement A program, or rule, that determines how and when the occurrence of a response will be followed by the delivery of the reinforcer. In a follow up study by DeLeon et al. () the competing effects of positive and negative reinforcement on problem behavior maintained by task removal were investigated with a chained schedule. A child with autism was provided the opportunity to choose a positive reinforcer (i.e., potato chip) or negative reinforcer (i.e., break) after. During Phase 1 and 2 sessions, S+ and S- were alternatingly presented with a mean intertrial interval (ITI) of 30 s with a range from 10 to 50 s. A s reset delay (RD) on chain pulling was programmed during the ITI to make it more likely that chain pulling eventually would come under control of .
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Intertrial interval effects upon avoidance behavior in titration schedules. Schedule of intertrial nonreinforcement, level of acquisition, and resistance to extinction / Performance Author: Lanny Intertrial interval effects upon avoidance behavior in titration schedules book.
The effect of the delay associated with the larger reinforcer has been the focus of much research. It, however, is not the only delay in the context of discrete‐trial procedures. Often separating each choice trial is an intertrial interval (ITI) that maintains equal trial spacing of the two alternatives.
The removal of this ITI has been shown Cited by: 5. BLA at 1 mg/kg IP had no significant behavioral effects, while 5 and 10 mg/kg significantly increased the number of avoidance responses without affecting responses during the intertrial interval (ITI).
Statistically reliable effects on behavior were not observed following 20 mg/kg of Cited by: 5. Twelve pigeons were trained on matching-to-sample using either a 0- 5- or sec intertrial interval. Eight of these 12 pigeons were given one of the following intertrial interval.
Thus, the titration procedure may have some differential effects depending upon the initial levels of the variable being titrated. Three of the pigeons began each session at a sec intertrial : G. Hochstetter, Gary L. Holt. Used titration schedules to obtain aversive thresholds from 5 adult female cats.
Responses emitted in the presence of the threshold stimuli shifted from predominantly avoidance behavior to. Two experiments were carried out to study vertical jumping avoidance learning in rats.
In particular, we examined the effects of the duration of a feedback stimulus and of the interval between the. Further experiments showed that (1) other algorithms for modulating stimulus duration are useful in behavioral pharmacology and toxicology, (2) threshold estimates are similar with the method of constant stimuli and the method of titration, and (3) this titration procedure permits the separate examination of drug effects upon discrimination and.
Once criterion was met for schedule A training, animals were transitioned to 5-CSRTT titration schedule, a more challenging version of the task, as described in Martin et al., Briefly, in. An incentive effect in thermally motivated behavior. James Matthews, Seth D. Pinsky Two independent effects of variation in intertrial interval upon leverpress avoidance learning by rats.
Active- and passive-avoidance learning in inbred mice: Transfer of training effects. Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 22, pp. Pergamon Press and Brain Research Publ., Printed in the U.S.A. Passive Avoidance Learning in Hippocampectomized Rats Under Different Shock and Intertrial Interval Conditions DENNIS C.
COGAN Texas Tech University AND JOHN L. REEVES University of California at Los Angeles (Received 27 December ) COGAN, D. Effects of Hippocampal Ablation on Learning in the Rat * HIROAKI NIKI Department of Psychology, College of General Education, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan) In a previous study (Niki, ), it was found that bilateral ablation of the hippocampus in rats resulted in an impairment of maze performance and a certain visual discrimination and delayed response.
The intertrial intervals in all four experiments were drawn from an exponential distribution with a mean of s, to which a 10‐s interval was added, so that there was no intertrial interval shorter than 10 s. Thus, the average intertrial interval was s. It is also known that lengthening intertrial interval increases the rate of acquisition of avoidance learning (Brush, ; Denny, ), and Weisman and Litner () have suggested that this may be caused by direct effects of variation of intertrial interval upon inhibitory fear conditioning.
The similarity and or- derliness of 2-DG's dose-dependent effects upon the 2 meas- ures suggests that these threshold shifts, particularly those at the mg/kg dose 30 min following the injection and at the mg/kg dose min post-injection, were more likely due to a decrease in pain sensitivity than to a non-specific behav- ioral effect.
During avoidance acquisition training, a lever-press during the first 60 s of the warning signal constituted an avoidance response, terminated the warning signal, and triggered the intertrial interval (ITI) with a blinking cue light. The effects of brief shock as the punishing stimulus during a simple or choice reaction time task (SRT or CRT) and the change in skin resistance during a key-pressing response were investigated under various conditions.
A slowing of the SRT and CRT occurred similarly during the shock phase under both the response-contingent and response-independent shock conditions. Investigators have used many different values for the ITI in investigating the variables in matching-to-sample.
Holt and Shafer (), showed that the ITI itself influences matching performance. In the present experiment the titration method was employed to determine the optimal or "preferred" ITI for pigeons.
Three Ss began each session with an ITI of 0 sec. VERHAVE T. The functional properties of a time out from an avoidance schedule.
J Exp Anal Behav. Oct; – [PMC free article] Wahlsten D, Cole M, Sharp D, Fantino E. Facilitation of bar-press avoidance by handling during the intertrial interval.
Abstract. The relatively young discipline of behavioral pharmacology studies the effects of drugs on behavior and their mechanism of action, using techniques from both experimental psychology and pharmacology.
Experimentation commonly involves the definition of a behavioral task; all parameters controlling performance, with the exception of drug administration, are held constant during both. Means, L.
W., Woodruff, M. & Isaacson, R. () The effect of a twenty-four hour intertrial interval on the acquisition of spatial discrimination by hippocampally damaged rats. Physiology and Behavior 8: – [taJNPR].
As many of you might well recall, this is known as a neutralisation reaction. Titration allows us to work out the concentration of, for example, an acid of unknown concentration, by using a fixed volume of it and measuring how much of an alkaline solution of known concentration is needed to react with all of it.
Titration is a sensitive analytical method that lets you determine an unknown concentration of a chemical in solution by introducing a known concentration of another chemical.
Several factors can cause errors in titration findings, including misreading volumes, mistaken concentration values or faulty technique. Misrepresenting the law of effect and ethology as its alternative - Volume 11 Issue 3 - Timothy D. Johnston, Jennifer A. Sharp. the role of temporal discriminations in the reinforcement of sidman avoidance behavior 1 Douglas Anger 1 The author is indebted to N.
Azrin, E. Hearst, R. Herrnstein, W. Morse, W. Schoenfeld, and M. Sidman for valuable criticism of a preliminary draft of this paper. -One of the main reasons for presenting the FT schedule is to contrast it with the FI schedule-compare and contrast Interval vs. Time Schedules (chart)-PRelation between rate of responding and rate of reinforcement: Questions 1 & 2-Pchart comparing and contrasting ratio and variable schedules.
Titration / Slowing and Portioning is so important because – if you think about it – one key characteristic of trauma is having too much come too fast.
So, titration is doing the exact opposite of what trauma does, it deliberately reverses too much, too fast by enacting a little bit, slowly. ANGER D. The role of temporal discriminations in the reinforcement of Sidman avoidance behavior.
J Exp Anal Behav. Jul; 6 (3)– [PMC free article] Anger D. The effect upon simple animal behavior of different frequencies of reinforcement, Part II: separate control of the reinforcement of different IRTs.
J Exp Anal Behav. Van Abeelen, J. F., and Strijbosch, H.,Genotype-dependent effects of scopolamine and eserine on exploratory behavior in mice, Psychopharmacology 81– CrossRef Google Scholar Wagman, W.
D., and Maxey, G. C,The effects of scopolamine hydrobromide and methyl scopolamine hydrobromide upon the discrimination of interoceptive. Abstract. Two experiments examined the effects of session duration on responding during simple variable-interval schedules.
In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to a series of simple variable-interval schedules differing in both session duration (10 min or 30 min) and scheduled reinforcement rate ( s, 15 s, 30 s, and s). Titration of a weak base with a strong acid (continued) Titration curves and acid-base indicators.
Up Next. Titration curves and acid-base indicators. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere.
Khan Academy is a (c)(3) nonprofit organization. Donate or volunteer today. Site Navigation. About. News. Walter S. Hunter Laboratory of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island PART A: OPERANT CONDITIONING "In general, learning theorists understand each other much better than did their ancestors of two decades ago.
Neobehaviorists, S-R functionalists, and statistical theorists can communicate easily with each other. Skinnerians also find it easy to communicate among themselves". The titration is based on the oxidation of sulphur dioxide by iodine in the presence of water. It is the same reaction as the iodometric titration of sulphur dioxide in water.
I 2 + SO 2 + 2H 2 O Ù2HI + H 2 SO 4 (I) InKarl Fischer published a description of “a new procedure for the titration of. Effects of interstimulus interval length and variability on startle-response habituation in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 72, (read through Experiment 1.
Applied Behavior Analysis/Behavioral Intervention strategies: Specific instructional strategies include fading of prompts, shaping of successive approximation so target skills and discrete trial teaching techniques. Discrete Trial Teaching involves giving an instruction, student responding and giving a consequence with an intertrial interval.
One purpose of the present study was to examine whether an aspect of the TDNMTP procedure, the titration interval, influenced control performance or drug effects.
It clearly affected vehicle-control performance, in that overall accuracy and the number of trials completed were inversely related to titration value, whereas the highest delay.
By varying the number of trials per training session and the duration of the intertrial interval, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that, with the CS, US, and intertrial interval being 12s, zebrafish learned avoidance responses within a training session consisting of 30 trials and retained the avoidance.
Operant behavior is behavior “controlled” by its consequences. In practice, operant conditioning is the study of reversible behavior maintained by reinforcement schedules. We review empirical studies and theoretical approaches to two large classes of operant behavior: interval timing and choice.
We discuss cognitive versus behavioral approaches to timing, the “gap” experiment and. Intertrial interval. the time between the end of one trial and the start of the next Delivery of reinforcers on an interval schedule, contingent on the absence of the problem behavior (behavior altering effect) - an antecedent condition which makes certain reinforcement more or less desired and certain behaviors associated with that.
According to Bouton's theory () time effect upon retrieval of the information is just a special case of contextual change.
In fact, there are many demonstrations where a physical context change resembles the effects of a retention interval (e.g., Bouton & Peck, ; Rosas & Bouton, ; Rosas et al, ). A theory of avoidance learning that states that (1) Pavlovian fear learning allows warning stimuli to evoke conditioned fear that motivates avoidance behavior and provides the opportunity for (2) reinforcement of the instrumental avoidance response through fear reduction.
Shock intensity was mA. If an animal failed to perform the required response, shock terminated automatically after 60 s.
The intertrial interval was 60 s, with a range from s. Results and Discussion Three measures were used to evaluate shuttle box escape performance: FR1 latency, FR2 latency, and number of failures.Initially, 50 mg PO on Day 1.
Thereafter, use the following titration schedule: mg/day on Day 2, mg/day on Day 3, mg/day on Day 4, and mg PO once daily beginning on Day 5. Adjust based upon response and tolerability within the recommended dose range of mg/day to mg/day.
Maximum: mg/day PO.